Pyelonephritis (Kidney Infection): Causes, Symptoms, Treatment, and Home Remedies

Pyelonephritis (kidney infection): Causes, symptoms, and treatmentPyelonephritis (kidney infection) is a result of a urinary tract infection (UTI) that moves to the upper urinary system, which includes the kidneys. The kidneys’ function is to filter blood and produce urine. Urine is carried to the bladder through the ureters where it is then expelled from the body.

Pyelonephritis is often a complication of a urinary tract infection. A UTI occurs when bacteria enter the urinary system. It can become quite a serious condition if the infection spreads to the blood. For the most part, kidney infection is always treated with antibiotics.

Causes of Pyelonephritis


E. coli is a common bacterium that can cause a UTI and a kidney infection. When proper urine flow is restricted, bacteria can make their way up to the kidneys. People with a weakened immune system, diabetics, and those with kidney stones are at a higher risk for kidney infection as well.

Kidney infections, and UTIs in general are more commonly seen in women because their urethra is much shorter than that of men’s, so bacteria have a shorter route to travel in order to reach the urinary tract system.

Pyelonephritis Risk Factors

Aside from having a weakened immune system, being diabetic, being female, and having kidney stones, other risk factors that can contribute to kidney infection development include having an obstruction of the urinary tract (which can be caused by an enlarged prostate and abdominal or pelvic masses), having damaged nerves around the bladder, using a catheter for a prolonged period of time, and having a condition such as vesicoureteral reflux that causes the flow of urine to go the wrong way.

Pyelonephritis Symptoms

Diarrhea: Diarrhea is characterized by loose, watery stools often as a result of bacteria. There are two main types of diarrhea: acute and chronic. Acute diarrhea lasts for a few days as a response to an infection, whereas chronic diarrhea lasts for several weeks and is often associated with an intestinal disorder or condition, like celiac disease or Crohn’s disease.

Fever and uncontrollable shivering: Fever or chills is a common symptom of the majority of infections associated with high bacterial count.

Nausea: Nausea, and maybe even vomiting, may occur as a result of a kidney infection. The infection itself may make you feel as if you are sick to your stomach. Nausea in a kidney infection may be a result of intense pain, dehydration, or the improper function of the kidneys.

Fatigue: You may feel fatigued or low energy as a result of your body fighting off an infection.

Back pain: Back pain, or flank pain, can result from a kidney infection and is experienced close to where the kidneys are located. If the pain does not subside even after taking pain medications, speak to your doctor right away.

Bloody urineIf the kidney infection is severe, you may notice blood in your urine as a result of red blood cells mixing with urine. This is common if the filtering function of the kidneys gets interrupted.

Cloudy urine: Healthy urine is clear and light yellow in color. Unhealthy urine can be cloudy, hazy, or milky looking. This can occur for a number of different reasons, including sexually transmitted diseases, dehydration, infections, or diseases that affect other body systems along with the urinary tract. While cloudy urine in men does happen, women get it more often since their bodies lend itself to E. coli forming in the bladder.

Dysuria: Dysuria – also known as painful urination – is a condition that can be an early sign of a urinary tract infection. Dysuria leads to feeling pain, discomfort, or burning while urinating. It’s important to seek medical attention if you are experiencing dysuria, as there may be a number of different causes.

Frequent urinationIf the kidney infection spreads to the urethra, you may also experience frequent urination. The urge persists even after you have emptied your bladder. This could be one of the early signs of a kidney infection.

Pain in the lower abdomen: Lower left abdominal pain may be related to a kidney infection, which not only causes abdominal pain but pain while urinating as well.

Diagnosing and Treating Pyelonephritis

To properly diagnose kidney infection, your doctor will look at your medical history, conduct a physical examination, complete a urinalysis, observe urine cultures and blood cultures, complete a computed tomography (CT) scan to obtain detailed images of the kidneys and bladder, and complete a kidney ultrasound to detect any stones or other obstructions.

Pyelonephritis is often treated with antibiotics, and hospitalization is rarely required. If the patient is vomiting, then hospitalization will be required so that antibiotics can be administered intravenously.

Home Remedies for Kidney Infection (Pyelonephritis)

Drink lots of water

Being well hydrated can help flush bacteria from the body, which can speed up infection recovery. Furthermore, drinking plenty of water can help keep the urinary tract clear to prevent further infection. On the other hand, avoid coffee and alcohol, as these liquids require your kidneys to work harder which can delay healing. You can also stay hydrated by consuming foods high in water like cucumbers and watermelon. Fruit and vegetable juices – without added sugar – are a good way to stay hydrated and boost your nutrient intake.

Cranberry juice

It has been longed believed that consuming cranberry juice – not the cocktail variety – can help treat UTIs and other urinary infections. There is also some evidence to suggest consuming cranberry juice may even prevent UTIs. If you prevent urinary infections, then you are also preventing kidney infections along with promoting good kidney health.


Consuming probiotics helps put good bacteria in the body. There is also some evidence that suggests probiotics assist in the waste management and removal of the kidneys allowing them to function more effectively. Probiotics can be taken in capsule or powder form or are even found in some foods like yogurt and fermented foods.

Parsley juice

Parsley juice is packed with nutrients and is also a diuretic, which means it can help you flush out bacteria because it increases the need to urinate. Flushing out bacteria from the body can allow for antibiotics to work more effectively. To make parsley juice more appealing, you can mix it in a smoothie with blueberries or cranberries.

Apple and apple cider vinegar

Apples are high in nutrients and also acidic, which can help the kidneys maintain acidity in urine which prevents bacteria growth. Apples also have anti-inflammatory properties which can aid in treating the infection.

Hot compressor

To reduce pain, you can apply heat compresses to the affected area for 20-minute intervals.

Epsom salt bath

Epsom salt baths are also an effective way of reducing pain. Simply run a warm bath, pour in some Epsom salt, and soak for a while.



Garlic is a natural anti-inflammatory and can help fight kidney infection. Furthermore, garlic acts as a diuretic which helps to flush out toxins. You can consume garlic in your meals or on its own raw. You can even try garlic supplements if the taste is too strong for you.

Herbal tea

Herbal teas such as parsley, marshmallow root, or chamomile may help prevent kidney infections because they offer antibacterial properties. They may also help alleviate kidney infection symptoms. Try consuming these teas twice daily.

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Author Bio

Devon Andre has been involved in the health and dietary supplement industry for a number of years. Devon has written extensively for Bel Marra Health. He has a Bachelor of Forensic Science from the University of Windsor, and went on to complete a Juris Doctor from the University of Pittsburgh. Devon is keenly aware of trends and new developments in the area of health and wellness. He embraces an active lifestyle combining diet, exercise and healthy choices. By working to inform readers of the options available to them, he hopes to improve their health and quality of life.


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