Ileocolitis: Causes, Symptoms, and Treatment Options


Ileocolitis is a medical condition characterized by inflammation in two critical sections of the digestive tract—the ileum and colon. This inflammatory bowel disease, often associated with Crohn’s disease, significantly impacts an individual’s quality of life. It may require comprehensive strategies to determine the most effective ileocolitis treatment options.

What Is Ileocolitis?


Ileocolitis refers to inflammation of the ileum, the last part of the small intestine, and the colon, also known as the large intestine. It is the most prevalent form of Crohn’s disease, a chronic inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) marked by periods of remission and flare-ups.

The condition can lead to various symptoms that may disrupt digestion and nutrient absorption. Moreover, ileocolitis can become severe enough to require surgical intervention, such as ileocecal resection (a procedure to remove diseased tissue at the end of the small intestine).

Causes of Ileocolitis

The exact causes of ileocolitis remain unknown. However, it’s generally associated with an overactive response by the body’s immune system.

Some researchers believe the immune system mistakes food and bacteria in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract for an allergen or foreign substance. As a result, it could lead to prolonged inflammation as the body tries to combat these perceived threats.

Moreover, there’s a genetic predisposition to developing ileocolitis, especially in individuals who have family members with Crohn’s disease. Environmental factors, like a high-fat diet or cigarette smoking, have also been implicated in an increased risk of developing ileocolitis.

Ileocolitis Symptoms and Signs

The symptoms of ileocolitis can vary among individuals. Primarily, it depends on the severity of inflammation and the affected area.

Common ileocolitis symptoms include:

  • Abdominal pain and cramping, typically in the lower right area of the abdomen
  • Diarrhea, which can sometimes be bloody
  • Unintended weight loss
  • Reduced appetite
  • Fever
  • Fatigue
  • Nausea and vomiting

Some people may also experience symptoms outside the GI tract. These include joint pain, skin problems, eye inflammation, and liver disorders.

Also, malnutrition can occur due to the inability of the inflamed intestines to absorb nutrients properly.

5 Risk Factors Associated with Ileocolitis

Certain factors may increase the likelihood of developing ileocolitis. Below, we’ve listed five health risks that could result in this form of hard-to-treat bowel disease.

1. Age

Ileocolitis most commonly begins before the age of 30. However, it can occur at any age, and some will develop the disease after age 60.

2. Ethnicity

People of Eastern European descent are at a higher risk of developing ileocolitis. But this is especially so for those of Jewish ethnicity.

3. Family History

Studies have shown that those with a parent, sibling, or child who has Crohn’s disease are more likely to develop ileocolitis. As many as one in five people, or 20% of the population, has a family member with the disease.

4. Smoking

Cigarette smoking is the most controllable risk factor for developing ileocolitis. Smokers are twice as likely to get the disease as non-smokers.

5. Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs)

These therapeutic medications are widely prescribed to relieve pain, reduce inflammation, and bring down high fevers. They include ibuprofen, naproxen sodium, and diclofenac sodium, among others.

However, long-term use of these drugs can irritate or damage the intestinal lining, leading to inflammation.

3 Effective Treatments for Ileocolitis

Ileocolitis treatments aim to reduce inflammation, manage symptoms, and achieve long-term remission. However, the choice of treatment depends on the severity of the disease.

The treatments below have been shown to treat or reduce ileocolitis symptoms effectively.

1. Diet Changes

A specialized diet can help manage symptoms. For example, high-fiber foods can exacerbate symptoms in some people, as these foods may cause bloating and diarrhea. Similarly, fatty foods, dairy, spicy food, and alcohol can also trigger symptoms.

So, seeking the help of a registered dietitian is highly recommended. A trained food and nutrition specialist works closely with patients to create a well-balanced eating plan that minimizes discomfort and ensures daily nutritional needs.

2. Medication

Medical practitioners may prescribe pharmaceuticals to reduce inflammation and prevent flare-ups. These include aminosalicylates (drugs to reduce inflammation of the GI tract’s lining), corticosteroids (potent, fast-working anti-inflammatories), immunomodulators (medicines that alter the immune system, so it works more effectively), and biological therapies (viral and bacterial vaccines).

However, these medications may have side effects. As such, they should only be taken under the strict guidance of a certified healthcare professional.

3. Surgery

Unfortunately, surgical intervention is a necessary last resort if medication proves ineffective or further complications arise.

As previously mentioned, ileocecal resection is a widely-used surgical procedure for ileocolitis. This surgery involves removing the affected parts of the ileum and colon, then reconnecting the healthy sections.

Despite surgery, it is important to note that it does not cure ileocolitis. But it could help manage the severe symptoms and complications associated with it.

Home Remedies for Ileocolitis

While the above-mentioned treatments can help manage ileocolitis symptoms, the home remedies below may also be effective. In fact, using these therapies in conjunction is highly recommended:

  • Regular exercise: Physical activity can help maintain a healthy body weight and reduce stress levels, which may reduce symptom flare-ups.
  • Adequate hydration: Drinking plenty of water can prevent dehydration, especially when one is experiencing diarrhea.
  • Quitting smoking: Smoking can exacerbate symptoms and lead to more severe disease. Quitting tobacco and other nicotine products is a critical step towards managing ileocolitis.

Ileocolitis and Crohn’s Disease

Crohn’s disease can affect any part of the GI tract, but ileocolitis is the most common form. Moreover, ileocolitis presents unique challenges in terms of symptoms, treatment, and long-term management.


While it’s a chronic condition with no known cure, a combination of medication, lifestyle modifications, and (in some cases) surgery can enable individuals with ileocolitis to lead fulfilling, active lives.

Understanding the causes and symptoms of this inflammatory bowel disease, including ileocolitis risk factors and treatment options, can be vital in managing the condition effectively. Of course, the support of family, friends, therapists, and other healthcare professionals can also be beneficial.

Always consult with healthcare professionals for accurate diagnosis and treatment options. And if you suspect you may have ileocolitis, be sure to seek medical attention as soon as possible.

Author Bio

Devon Andre has been involved in the health and dietary supplement industry for a number of years. Devon has written extensively for Bel Marra Health. He has a Bachelor of Forensic Science from the University of Windsor, and went on to complete a Juris Doctor from the University of Pittsburgh. Devon is keenly aware of trends and new developments in the area of health and wellness. He embraces an active lifestyle combining diet, exercise and healthy choices. By working to inform readers of the options available to them, he hopes to improve their health and quality of life.