Sciatica occurs when a person experiences feelings of numbness or tingling, which begins in the lower back region, through the buttocks, and runs down the leg—the sciatic nerve.
Nerve pain resulting from sciatica is a symptom related to an underlying condition that affects the sciatic nerve. Conditions that can lead to sciatica are a lumbar herniated disc, degenerative disc disease, and spinal stenosis.
Fortunately, physical therapy and exercises can help relieve sciatic nerve pain and improve the condition by increasing strength through stretching and aerobic techniques.
Sciatic nerve pain stretches aim to target the muscles that lead to pain. These muscles are often tight and inflexible, so stretching can loosen the tightness and minimize pain.
Stretching the hamstring is best for dealing with sciatic nerve pain, as the sciatic nerve runs through the hamstring—this is the area behind the quadriceps, underneath your buttocks.
Here are some examples of sciatic nerve pain stretches:
Towel hamstring stretch: Lay on your back with a towel wrapped around your thigh. With your leg up in the air and your hands grasping the towel, begin to straighten the knee until a stretch is felt at the back of the thigh. Hold the position for 10 seconds and gradually begin to increase the duration of the hold.
Wall hamstring stretch: Once again, lay on the floor with your buttocks up against a wall. With one leg stretched out in front and the other up against the wall, push the knee straight until a stretch is felt.
Hamstring stretch while sitting: Sit at the edge of a chair and have one leg straight out in front of you with your heel on the floor, toes pointing upward. Sit up straight while pushing your navel towards your thigh without actually leaning over. Hold the stretch for 30 seconds and repeat three times for each leg.
Pigeon pose: Lay with your back flat on the floor, then raise your right leg up to a right angle and interlock your fingers behind the thigh. Raise you left leg, resting your right ankle on its knee, and press that knee towards your head to stretch the tiny piriformis muscle. Lower both legs then repeat on the opposite side.
Knee to opposite shoulder: Begin by lying flat on your back with your feet flexed upwards. Lift your right leg, then link your fingers around your knee and pull it gently across your body towards the opposite shoulder. Hold the position for 30 seconds before returning to the starting position and repeat the movement with your left leg.
Sitting spinal stretch: Start by sitting on the ground with your legs extended in front of you and your feet flexed upwards. Bend your right knee and cross your leg over the left, planting your right foot flat on the outside of your left knee. Turn your upper body and place your left elbow to the outside of your right knee, helping to keep your body turned towards the right. Hold this pose for 30 seconds, then return to the starting position and repeat on the left side.
Standing hamstring stretch: Place your right foot on an elevated surface either at or below hip level and flex your foot so that your toes and leg are straight. Bend forward towards your foot and reach for your toes – the further you bend the deeper the stretch. Hold this position for 30 seconds, then switch legs.
Reclining Cow’s Face Pose: Lay face-up on your back and cross your left leg over your right. Raise both legs off the floor, flexing both feet, and reach for your outer ankles to hug your legs towards your stomach. Hold for 30 seconds, then switch sides and repeat.
Low Lunge: Begin in a regular lunge position with your right leg forward and your left knee on the ground. The top of your left foot should be flat on the ground. Lift your torso slowly and rest your hands on your right thigh, then lean your hips forward to stretch the left hip flexor. Hold this pose for 30 seconds, then repeat on the other side.
Exercising for sciatica nerve pain has been found to be more effective than simply staying in bed. Strengthening and low aerobic exercises should be your go-to, as they offer the most relief from sciatica nerve pain.
Strengthening exercises should work to strengthen the spinal column and the supporting muscles, tendons, and ligaments. This includes targeting the lower back, abdomen, glutes, and hip muscles.
Low aerobic exercises consist of walking, swimming, and pool therapies. They aim to increase fluid and nutrient exchange in order to promote a healthy environment for healing. Furthermore, low aerobic exercises work as a natural painkiller, as exercise has been shown to help alleviate pain by increasing endorphins in the body.
Speak to your physical therapist or trainer with regards to appropriate exercises to help strengthen your muscles in order to reduce sciatica nerve pain.
Along with stretches and exercises, there are other home remedies you can utilize in order to alleviate sciatica nerve pain.
Other tips to improve sciatica nerve pain include:
If you are on a long driving trip or flight, ensure you take plenty of moments to move around as much as possible, i.e., make stops, get up from your seat
By practicing these tips as well, you can help improve sciatica nerve pain and prevent future injury.
Related: How to get rid of sciatica pain